关于土耳其宣布实施“紧急状态”的情况说明

Guanco Başkonsolosluğu 28.07.2016

实施背景:

土耳其刚刚经历了一次企图推翻土耳其民选政府和打乱宪法秩序的血腥政变。

利用劫持的喷气式战机和攻击式直升机,肇事者轰炸了包括土耳其大国民议会和总统府的国家机构。户外街道上抗议政变的土耳其人民也遭到残暴的机枪射杀,甚至被劫持的坦克直接火炮攻击。

政变声称有246名土耳其公民,其中包括60名安保人员丧生。总共有超过2000名土耳其公民受伤。

充分的证据显示此次政变是由葛兰集团阴谋策划并发动的。葛兰集团在土耳其早已被宣布为恐怖组织,即,葛兰恐怖组织,FETÖ。

在过去的几年间,葛兰恐怖组织在土耳其军队和国家机关里组建了一个秘密网络。葛兰恐怖组织还在国外建立了庞大的发展成员或葛兰同情者的组织机构。

未遂政变是最近发生的揭示了葛兰恐怖组织的真正动机和它仍然构成强大而持久的威胁的一次犯罪行为。

土耳其共和国的“紧急状态”

显然,2016年7月15日政变以来,土耳其及整个政府机构正在面临一场严重的多方面的安全威胁。继而,威胁到公共秩序的风险也仍然存在。

常规措施已经不足以减少和管理非常时期的威胁和情况。

2016年7月21日,土耳其部长理事会宣布土耳其实施“紧急状态”,为期90天。这项措施在同一天获得了土耳其国民议会的通过。

采取这项措施是依据土耳其共和国宪法的第120章。

“紧急状态”是被国际法包括,欧洲人权公约,认可的一项措施。

有鉴于此,土耳其诉诸欧洲人权公约第15条中的可以减免某些义务的权利。正如公约中详细描述的那样,减免义务并不是取消公民权利,是在特殊时期限定公民的某些权利的实施。

根据土耳其宪法,在“紧急状态”时期,土耳其政府拟定的一切法令都被要求在同一天申请由土耳其国民议会予以表决。

土耳其“紧急状态”时期,加速剿灭和肃清葛兰恐怖组织以及它的秘密网络和组织机构是土耳其政府的主要目标。政府的最终目的仍然是保护土耳其的民主,宪法秩序和根本权利及自由。

虽然“紧急状态”为期90天,但是反葛兰恐怖组织的战斗一旦取得胜利,所有的特别措施将予以取消。

实施“紧急状态”措施符合土耳其国际人权承诺,法律规则也仍然有效。 “紧急状态”时期以及之后,一切可行的合法的上诉程序仍然可行并有效,包括个人向土耳其宪法法院提出的上诉请求。

INFORMATIVE NOTE ON THE

DECLARATION OF “STATE OF EMERGENCY” IN TURKEY

BACKGROUND INFO:

Turkey has experienced a bloody coup attempt aiming at overthrowing the democratically-elected government and the constitutional order in Turkey.

Among others, Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Presidential Palace were bombed by the perpetrators using hijacked fighter jets and attack helicopters. Civilians who were resisting the coup attempt on the streets were directly aimed at and shot dead by machine guns and even by canon fire from the hijacked tanks.

The coup attempt claimed the lives of
246 Turkish citizens, including more than 60 security personnel. More than 2500 Turkish citizens were also wounded.

Solid evidences clearly show that the coup attempt was plotted and staged by Fethullah Gülen community/movement which has formerly been declared in Turkey as a terrorist organization, i.e. Fethullahist Terrorist Organization(FETÖ).

Over the years, FETÖ has created an undercover network in the Turkish Military as well as in several State organs. This organization has also created a broad network of members or sympathizers in foreign countries.

The foiled coup attempt is the latest criminal act revealing the real motivations of FETÖ as well as the big and enduring threats that FETÖ is still posing.

“STATE OF EMERGENCY” IN TURKEY:

It is evident that Turkey and its overall Government structure has been facing serious and multi-dimensional security threats since the coup attempt on 15 July 2016. Therefore, the risks against the public order still exist.

Extraordinary threats and conditions cannot be neutralized or managed by ordinary measures.

As from 21/7/2016, the Council of Ministers of Turkey has declared a “state of emergency” in Turkey for 90 days. This measure was approved by Turkish National Assembly the same day.

This measure was taken on the basis of Article 120 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey.

“State of emergency” is a measure permissible under the international law, including the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR).

In this connection, Turkey resorted to the right of derogation from the obligations in the ECHR permissible under Article 15 of the Convention. As explicitly stated in the Convention, derogation is not a suspension of rights. It only brings certain limitations to the exercise of several rights under certain conditions.

According to the Turkish Constitution, all legislative decrees made by the Government during the “state of emergency” must be submitted to the approval of the National Assembly on the very same day.

During this “state of emergency” in Turkey, expedited elimination and neutralization of FETÖ, with all its undercover network and structure, will be the major objective, while the ultimate goal of the Turkish Government will remain to be the protection of the democracy, constitutional order and the fundamental rights and freedoms in Turkey.

Although the “state of emergency” has been declared for a period of 90 days, all extraordinary measures will be terminated once the result in the fight against the FETÖ is successfully attained.

“State of emergency” will be conducted in observance with the international human rights commitments of Turkey, while the rule of law will continue to be upheld. All effective legal remedies remain available and accessible during and after the “state of emergency”, including individual application to the Constitutional Court of Turkey.


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